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Hybrid PoW/PoS Consensus Explained

Hybrid PoW/PoS Consensus Explained

Author: Richard Red, Decred contributor.

A blockchain’s consensus mechanism serves to ensure that there is agreement among participants on the current state of the blockchain. The consensus mechanism determines who is able to add new blocks of transactions, and one of its primary aims is to ensure that the chain is not re-written.

Proof of Work consensus

Blockchains with pure Proof of Work consensus (like Bitcoin) can only have new blocks added by miners, who deploy hardware that efficiently guesses the answer to a mathematical problem. Each time a miner makes a valid guess, they can construct a block that the network accepts. While miners can choose to mine any chain, the network will only accept the chain with the most accumulated Proof of Work (i.e., the most hashes, or guesses) as the legitimate chain. This means that miners are incentivized to mine on the longest chain, and when they see a valid new block, they will try to find the solution for the next block that allows them to build on top of the previous one.

The difficulty of re-writing the blockchain is what allows it to function as a ledger for financial transactions. When a transaction appears in a block that sends coins to a wallet, and several blocks have been built on top of that block (confirmations), it becomes unlikely that the block (and transaction) will be re-written.

If an entity controls enough hashing power to surpass the “honest chain,” it can re-write (or reorganize) the blockchain by mining on an “old” block instead of on the latest block. Here’s a simplified account of this kind of attack, also known as a 51% attack: The attacker spends in block X by sending to an exchange, then starts mining a parallel chain in private (blocks are not broadcast to the network). Once the required number of confirmations have passed, the attacker trades the coins for something else and withdraws that from the exchange. When the withdrawal clears, they release the parallel chain, and if it has more PoW (blocks) than the original chain, the network will accept it as the legitimate chain and the version of history represented by the original chain (including the attacker’s deposit) will disappear. The attacker is then free to spend these coins again.

As miners are the only entities that can directly add blocks to the chain in pure PoW cryptocurrencies, this grants them a strong role in governance. For any change to the network’s consensus rules to be adopted, it must have the support of a majority of hash power. “Soft forks” require enough miners to recognize a new rule set so users can transact and expect their transactions to be properly processed and included in blocks. “Hard forks” would split the network into two components, and by the commonly accepted rule of “the chain with most PoW is the right chain to follow,” miners would decide which one is accepted as legitimate.

Proof of Stake consensus

Proof of Stake consensus is an alternative method of deciding who can add new blocks and verify the current state of the blockchain. Instead of miners competing to solve a problem, with proof of stake, the next block producer is determined by some process based on the number of coins held in wallets (or “staked”). This process trusts that those with the most stake will make responsible decisions for the entirety of the network.

Proof of Stake consensus eliminates the need for energy-intensive mining, but the lack of significant energy expenditure creates another problem, sometimes referred to as “nothing at stake.” In the case of a forked chain, PoS forgers (“forging” is generally used instead of “mining”) are incentivized to validate blocks on both chains because it costs them very little to work on an extra chain and they can collect rewards on both chains. This is a problem for the network because there is only supposed to be one chain and agreeing on the state of that single chain is the whole purpose of the consensus mechanism.

Proof of Stake has an additional problem with regard to the distribution of tokens. PoW miners have significant costs (hardware, electricity) and must typically sell a significant portion of their mined coins to meet those costs. As a result, many mined coins are available to purchase on the market, rather than being hoarded by miners. Proof of Stake forgers have very low operational costs, so do not have the same pressure to sell the coins they receive for maintaining the network. Large holders who engage in Proof of Stake tend to increase their share of the circulating coins as they collect block rewards and transaction fees from users of the network. This has been likened to feudalism, whereby the network is effectively owned and operated by coin holders, and users pay them a kind of rent for using it. There is usually some cut-off beneath which it is not possible to participate directly in Proof of Stake.

Hybrid PoW/PoS

The objective of hybrid Proof of Work and Proof of Stake systems is to capture the benefits of the respective approaches and use them to balance each other’s weaknesses. Decred is among the few cryptocurrencies to utilize both PoW and PoS in recognizable forms and merge them together to produce a multi-factor or hybrid consensus mechanism.

“Masternode coins” are, in some senses, also hybrids, in that they have a recognizable Proof of Work component that performs a similar role as in Bitcoin, and an additional role for special nodes. There is typically a requirement that these special nodes hold a certain amount of the currency as collateral, to demonstrate that they can be trusted to act in the network’s best interests, which is similar to the rationale for Proof of Stake. Dash is the original masternode coin and refers to this model as Proof of Service. This article focuses on hybrids with a Proof of Stake component, and will not consider the array of coins which emulate masternodes or Proof of Service.

Decred’s PoW component works similar to other PoW-based projects and uses the Blake-256 hash function. Decred’s PoS component, and the way it is woven into the chain, is quite unique and worthy of further explanation.

To participate in Decred’s Proof of Stake, holders must time-lock their DCR to buy “tickets.” The price for an individual ticket is set by a market-like mechanism whereby the system is aiming for a set number of live tickets (40,960) - if there are more than the target number the price goes up, if there are less it goes down. When someone buys a ticket, the DCR they used is locked (i.e., they cannot spend it) until their ticket is pseudorandomly called to vote, or until it expires after around 142 days. This introduces an opportunity cost for PoS, intended to ensure that PoS voters have skin in the game and act in the network’s best interests.

PoS participants (also referred to as voters or stakeholders) have three distinct roles to play: block voting, voting on changes to the consensus rules, and voting on project level management using the Politeia Proposal System. The first of these, “block voting,” is the way in which PoS voters engage most directly in maintaining consensus.

Voting on blocks

When a PoW miner finds a valid block, they broadcast it on the network, but in order for that block to be considered valid, it must include votes by at least 3 of 5 randomly selected tickets. PoS voters keep wallets open and ready to respond with votes when their tickets are called (or they engage Voting Service Providers to do this on their behalf). When a PoS ticket is called to vote and responds, its owner receives a reward.

When tickets are called, they vote to accept or reject the regular transactions of the previous block. Nodes on the network will not recognize a new block as valid until it includes at least 3 votes. If a majority of the tickets called to vote reject the previous block’s transactions, then they are returned to the mempool. These regular transactions include the PoW miner’s reward, but not the PoS voters’ reward.

Therefore, PoS voters have the power to strip rewards from miners without affecting their own rewards. This limits the power of PoW miners to veto changes to the network’s consensus rules, which are voted by the stakeholders. In fact, PoS voters can reject any kind of miner behavior that they dislike by adopting a policy of voting “no” when malicious or inefficient behavior is detected - preventing bad PoW miners from writing transactions and receiving rewards.

This PoS verification layer significantly boosts the network’s security and resistance to majority attacks. The common method of conducting a majority double spend attack is to rewrite the blockchain by mining an alternative chain in secret then releasing it after a certain period of time and taking advantage of the nullification of transactions in the “old” chain (i.e., by double spending their inputs). As Decred blocks require input from randomly selected tickets to be considered valid and cannot be built on by PoW miners until they have received this input, it is not possible for PoW miners to mine in secret unless they also control a significant proportion of the live tickets (see these articles).

The hybrid PoW/PoS design significantly increases the costs of attacking the network because there are two distinct systems which must be circumvented by an attacker. The PoS component, in particular, is configured such that tickets can only be acquired quite slowly. A limited number of tickets can be bought in each block/interval, and buying the maximum number causes the price to increase sharply. Additionally, once these tickets have been purchased, the funds used to buy them will be time-locked, leaving an attacker exposed to any devaluation of their locked coins that occurred as a result of an attack.

The requirement that each block is voted on by randomly selected stakeholders means that the blockchain must be shared with all participants as it is mined, enhancing the network’s security. Decred’s hybrid system has been designed to also grant stakeholders power over the PoW miners.

Consensus change voting

Decred decided at its outset to make PoS stakeholders the dominant decision-making force in the blockchain’s governance. Written into the consensus rules is an upgrade ratification procedure through which any change to the network’s consensus rules can only be deployed once it has passed through a voting process. Changes can only be made if approved by at least 75% of the voting tickets. This process begins once a certain proportion of miners (95%) and voters (75%) are running upgraded software with latent changes to the rules. If the proposal has 75% support after a 4 week voting period it is accepted, otherwise, it is rejected, and if it does not have either supermajority, a re-vote begins. If a proposal is accepted the rule change activates one month later.

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Project management: Politeia

Decred’s block rewards are split between PoW miners (60%), PoS voters (30%), and a Treasury (10%) to fund development of open source software that furthers the project’s aims. Ticket holders have sovereignty to vote on how this fund should be spent what features should be added, and to determine policy through the Politeia platform.

Closing thoughts

As PoS voters receive 30% of the block reward, they cannot maintain their relative share of circulating DCR simply by staking. The majority of newly minted DCR goes to PoW miners in exchange for the role they play in securing the network and mitigating the “nothing at stake” problem of pure PoS systems. Miners would typically have to sell a significant portion of the rewards they receive to meet their operational costs, ensuring that a fair supply of DCR is available in the market.

Decred’s blockchain presents unique architecture and is one of the most notable examples of a hybrid PoW/PoS system. In the same way that projects with PoS consensus are a general grouping with significant variations within, future projects which deploy hybrid PoW/PoS approaches will also be unique and will not necessarily follow the Decred framework.

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What Is a DoS Attack?

What Is a DoS Attack?
In short, a DoS attack (or Denial-of-Service attack) is a method used to disrupt legitimate users' access to a target network or web resource. Typically, this is accomplished by overloading the target (often a web server) with a massive amount of traffic - or by sending malicious requests that cause the target resource to malfunction or crash entirely.
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What Is a 51% Attack?

What Is a 51% Attack?
Before diving into the 51% attack, it is crucial to have a good understanding of mining and blockchain-based systems. One of the key strengths of Bitcoin and its underlying blockchain technology is the distributed nature of building and verifying data. The decentralized work of the nodes ensures that the protocol rules are being followed and that all network participants agree on the current state of the blockchain. This means that the majority of nodes need to regularly reach consensus in regards to the process of mining, to the version of the software being used, to the validity of transactions, and so forth.
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Delayed Proof of Work Explained

Delayed Proof of Work Explained
Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) is a security mechanism designed by the Komodo project. It is basically a modified version of the Proof of Work (PoW) consensus algorithm that makes use of Bitcoin blockchain’s hashpower as a way to enhance network security. By using dPoW, Komodo developers are able to secure not only their own network but also any third-party chain that ends up joining the Komodo ecosystem in the future. In fact, dPoW can be implemented for any project that develops an independent blockchain using a UTXO model.
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What Is a Blockchain Consensus Algorithm?

What Is a Blockchain Consensus Algorithm?
A consensus algorithm is a mechanism that allows users or machines to coordinate in a distributed setting. It needs to ensure that all agents in the system can agree on a single source of truth, even if some agents fail. In other words, the system must be fault-tolerant (see also - Byzantine Fault Tolerance Explained). In a centralized setup, a single entity has power over the system. In most cases, they can make changes as they please – there isn’t some complex governance system for reaching consensus amongst many administrators.
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5 BSC Metaverse Projects You Should Know

5 BSC Metaverse Projects You Should Know
The metaverse is an online, immersive space where users can work, play, and socialize in a 3D environment. The metaverse is still developing, but blockchain technology already plays a significant role. BNB Smart Chain (BSC) is the home to many metaverse projects experimenting with play-to-earn blockchain games and community sandboxes.decentral.games lets users play and run their own casino through governance mechanisms. Cyber Dragon and Alien Worlds both provide an RPG-like experience where players have their own character, missions, and loot. TopGoal is also gaming-related but focuses on the collectability of Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) to represent sports stars like trading cards.
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A Beginner's Guide to Earning Passive Income With Crypto

A Beginner's Guide to Earning Passive Income With Crypto
Trading or investing in projects is one way to make money in the blockchain industry. However, that typically requires detailed research and a substantial investment of time – but it still won’t guarantee a reliable source of income. Even the best investors can experience prolonged periods of loss, and one of the ways to survive them is to have alternative sources of income.
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What Is Crypto Lending and How Does It Work?

What Is Crypto Lending and How Does It Work?
Crypto lending lets users borrow and lend cryptocurrencies for a fee or interest. You can instantly get a loan and start investing just by providing some collateral. This could be through a DeFi lending DApp or a cryptocurrency exchange. When your collateral falls below a certain value, you will need to top it up to the required level to avoid liquidation. When you return your loan plus a fee, your capital is unlocked.
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A Beginner's Guide to Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

A Beginner's Guide to Decentralized Finance (DeFi)
DeFi lets users access crypto financial services with just no more than a wallet with some crypto. A range of DApps facilitates lending, liquidity provision, swaps, staking, and more across many blockchains. While Ethereum was DeFi's original home, most blockchains with smart contract capabilities now host DeFi DApps. Smart contracts are essential to the services DeFi offers, which include staking, investing, lending, harvesting, and more.
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5 NFT Projects You Should Know

5 NFT Projects You Should Know
The interest in NFTs has exploded. While many NFT projects had a small community of enthusiasts since their early existence, 2021 has brought forth a bit of an NFT bubble. Many thought DeFi would bring mainstream adoption to the crypto space. However, it seems like the value proposition of NFTs is much easier to grasp for people not involved with blockchain technology. As such, some NFT projects have even entered the mainstream. But which ones are they?
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Top 3 NFT Projects on Binance Smart Chain

Top 3 NFT Projects on Binance Smart Chain
The demand for non-fungible tokens (NFTs) keeps growing on Binance Smart Chain (BSC). The blockchain’s speed and low transaction fees make it very attractive for both users and developers. On BSC, Battle Pets, PancakeSwap, and BakerySwap have all pushed further the limits of what an NFT can do. Both Battle Pets and BakerySwap combine collectibles with Decentralized Finance (DeFi) staking for their tokens. PancakeSwap is also experimenting with NFTs that merge collectability, financial utility, and gamification.
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Top 7 NFT Use Cases

Top 7 NFT Use Cases
Massive interest in non-fungible tokens has led to a boom in crypto-collectibles and NFT art. These are two of the most prominent use cases in the DeFi ecosystem, but they aren’t the only applications. Scarcity and uniqueness make non-fungible tokens a good match for real-world assets, logistics, music royalties, and more. As NFTs mature, we can expect to see further adoption of more experimental use cases.
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What Are NFT Games and How Do They Work?

What Are NFT Games and How Do They Work?
NFTs are unique digital collectibles on the blockchain. This feature makes them suitable to use in games as representations as characters, consumables, and other tradeable items. NFT games have become popular in the Game-fi world as a way to earn income. You can sell your in-game NFTs to other collectors and players and even earn tokens with play-to-earn models.
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What Is the Metaverse?

What Is the Metaverse?
The metaverse is a concept of a persistent, online, 3D universe that combines multiple different virtual spaces. You can think of it as a future iteration of the internet. The metaverse will allow users to work, meet, game, and socialize together in these 3D spaces.
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What Are CryptoPunks?

What Are CryptoPunks?
CryptoPunks are collectible pieces of crypto art, represented by NFTs on the Ethereum blockchain. There are 10,000 small, 8-bit-style punks, all with unique features. As one of the first famous NFT projects, they inspired a lot of crypto artists and even the development of the ERC-721 token standard for digital collectibles. The project became more popular in 2021 after some CryptoPunks were sold for millions of dollars, making them some of the most expensive NFTs.
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What Is an Automated Market Maker (AMM)?

What Is an Automated Market Maker (AMM)?
You could think of an automated market maker as a robot that’s always willing to quote you a price between two assets. Some use a simple formula like Uniswap, while Curve, Balancer and others use more complicated ones.
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A Guide to Crypto Collectibles and Non-fungible Tokens (NFTs)

A Guide to Crypto Collectibles and Non-fungible Tokens (NFTs)
The creation of Bitcoin introduced the concept of trustless, digital scarcity. Before it, the cost of digitally copying something was next to nothing. With the advent of blockchain technology, programmable digital scarcity has become possible – letting us map the digital world to the real world. Non-fungible tokens (NFTs), often referred to as crypto collectibles, expand this idea. Unlike cryptocurrencies, where each token is equal, non-fungible tokens are unique and limited in quantity.
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Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) Explained

Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) Explained
Blockchains are already radically transforming our financial system. However, properties such as trustlessness and immutability aren’t only useful in monetary applications. Another potential candidate ripe for disruption by this technology is governance. Blockchains could enable entirely new types of organizations that can run autonomously without the need for coordination by a central entity. This article will give an introduction to what these organizations might look like.
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A Beginner's Introduction to Cryptoeconomics

A Beginner's Introduction to Cryptoeconomics
In simple terms, cryptoeconomics provides a way to coordinate the behavior of network participants by combining cryptography with economics. More specifically, cryptoeconomics is an area of computer science that attempts to solve participant coordination problems in digital ecosystems through cryptography and economic incentives.
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Pyramid and Ponzi Schemes

Pyramid and Ponzi Schemes
Most individuals that invest in Bitcoin – or that participate in Initial Coin Offering (ICO) events – are usually concerned about two things. First, the Return of Investment (ROI), which represents the profits they will eventually make from the initial investment. Then, there is a second concern, which is related to the amount of risk involved with the investment. When the risks are too high, investors are more likely to lose their initial investment (in parts or completely), which would result in a negative ROI.
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What is Public Key Cryptography?

What is Public Key Cryptography?
Public key cryptography (PKC), also known as asymmetric cryptography, is a framework that uses both a private and a public key, as opposed to the single key used in symmetric cryptography. The use of key pairs gives PKC a unique set of characteristics and capabilities that can be utilized to solve challenges inherent in other cryptographic techniques. This form of cryptography has become an important element of modern computer security, as well as a critical component of the growing cryptocurrency ecosystem.
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History of Cryptography

History of Cryptography
Cryptography, the science of writing codes and ciphers for secure communication, is one of the most important elements that goes into making modern cryptocurrencies and blockchains possible. The cryptographic techniques used today, however, are the result of an incredibly long history of development. Since ancient times, people have used cryptography to transmit information in a secure manner. Following is the fascinating history of cryptography that has led up to the advanced and sophisticated methods used for modern digital encryption.
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What Is Axie Infinity (AXS)?

What Is Axie Infinity (AXS)?
It’s 2021, and that means you can earn money by playing games and breeding virtual pets. An easy way to think of Axie Infinity is to imagine a blockchain game that combines Pokémon, CryptoKitties, and card game elements.
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Is Bitcoin a Store of Value?

When you think of a safe-haven asset, precious metals like gold or silver probably come to mind. They’re investments that individuals flock to as hedges against turmoil in traditional markets. The debate over whether Bitcoin follows in the footsteps of these assets rages on. In this article, we’ll look at some of the main arguments for and against Bitcoin being a store of value.
When you think of a safe-haven asset, precious metals like gold or silver probably come to mind. They’re investments that individuals flock to as hedges against turmoil in traditional markets. The debate over whether Bitcoin follows in the footsteps of these assets rages on. In this article, we’ll look at some of the main arguments for and against Bitcoin being a store of value.
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Приготовьтесь! Биткойн будут сливать, но это не точно

Приготовьтесь! Биткойн будут сливать, но это не точно
Только что в Twitter наткнулся на пост от Jacob Canfield, якобы есть инсайдерская информация, о том что Bitcoin планируют сливать, дабы выбить некоторых конкурентов, потом обратно откупить, подняв стоимость до $70к.
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What Is The Sandbox (SAND)?

What Is The Sandbox (SAND)?
The Sandbox is a play-to-earn game that combines blockchain technology, DeFi, and NFTs in a 3D metaverse. Its virtual world allows players to create and customize their games and digital assets with free design tools. The virtual goods created can then be monetized as NFTs and sold for SAND tokens on The Sandbox Marketplace.
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What Is VeChain (VET)?

What Is VeChain (VET)?
VeChain provides blockchain solutions for businesses around the globe. With plenty of existing industry blockchain applications from supply chain management to anti-counterfeiting and carbon credits, their systems have been proven in the real world. VET is the coin that underpins VeChain, where VTHO is the gas token that’s used for transactions on the VeChainThor blockchain (like Ethereum’s gas).
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More about the Crypto Fans club

More about the Crypto Fans club
Now I will tell you what our club is, how it works and what advantages it has. A minimum of water, a maximum of specifics. The club is a kind of trust fund, which consists of a team of Asset Managers, on the one hand, who invest in the crypto market, and Investors, on the other. I will not describe in this article what cryptocurrency is, why it is growing, and what are its advantages, this topic is worthy of a separate article. You can google all this, or go to coinmarketcap.com and see how the value of a particular cryptocurrency has grown at least this year, and doubts about investing in cryptocurrency should disappear.
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What Is Tether (USDT)?

What Is Tether (USDT)?
Tether (USDT) is one of the most popular stablecoins out there. It was designed to hold a one-to-one value with the US dollar. The coin exists on many different blockchains and has experienced rising trading volumes and improved liquidity over the past few years.
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What Is Solana (SOL)?

What Is Solana (SOL)?
Solana is a blockchain network focused on fast transactions and high throughput. It uses a unique method of ordering transactions to improve its speed. Users can pay their transaction fees and interact with smart contracts with SOL, the network’s native cryptocurrency.
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What Is Ethereum 2.0 And Why Does It Matter?

What Is Ethereum 2.0 And Why Does It Matter?
Ethereum 2.0 is a long-awaited upgrade to the Ethereum (ETH) network that’s promised significant improvements to the functionality and experience of the network as a whole. Some of the more notable upgrades include a shift to Proof of Stake (PoS), shard chains, and a new blockchain at the core called the beacon chain. All of this and more is expected to be phased in through a carefully planned roadmap.
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What Is Polkadot (DOT)?

What Is Polkadot (DOT)?
Polkadot positions itself as the next-generation blockchain protocol, capable of connecting multiple specialized chains into one universal network. With a strong focus on building infrastructure for Web 3.0 – and founded by the Web3 Foundation – Polkadot aims to disrupt Internet monopolies and empower individual users.
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What Is Harmony (ONE)?

What Is Harmony (ONE)?
Harmony is a layer-1 blockchain using sharding and Effective Proof of Stake to achieve scalability, security, and decentralization. The network was launched in 2019 and features trustless cross-chain bridges and four shards, which process transactions in parallel. Effective Proof of Stake encourages decentralization of validators, and sharding shares the network's load among validators, delegators, and users.
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What Is Decentraland (MANA)?

What Is Decentraland (MANA)?
Decentraland is a virtual world and community based on blockchain technology. Users develop and own plots of land, artwork, and Non-Fungible Tokens (NFT). Members also participate in the platform’s Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO).
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What Is BUSD?

What Is BUSD?
BUSD is a regulated, fiat-backed stablecoin pegged to the U.S. dollar. For every unit of BUSD, there is one U.S. dollar held in reserve. In other words, the supply of BUSD is pegged to the U.S. dollar at a 1:1 ratio. Holders can swap their tokens for fiat and vice versa. Paxos, the token’s issuer, releases monthly attestations of BUSD’s reserves.
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What Is Filecoin (FIL)?

What Is Filecoin (FIL)?
FFilecoin is a decentralized, peer-to-peer digital storage marketplace using blockchain technology. It’s built on top of InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) and allows users to rent unused hard disk space and earn FIL tokens in return. Let’s see how Filecoin aims to shake up the online storage space.
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What Is Avalanche (AVAX)?

What Is Avalanche (AVAX)?
Avalanche attempts to improve scalability without compromising speed or decentralization. Three blockchains make up its core platform - the Exchange Chain (X-Chain), Contract Chain (C-Chain), and Platform Chain (P-Chain). The X-Chain is used for creating and trading assets. The C-Chain is for smart contract creation. The P-Chain is for coordinating validators and Subnets.
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What Is a Stablecoin?

What Is a Stablecoin?
A stablecoin is a cryptoasset pegged to another asset, such as fiat currencies or precious metals. Stablecoins are designed to maintain a relatively stable price so that users can avoid the volatility risks common in the crypto markets.
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What Are Wrapped Tokens?

What Are Wrapped Tokens?
A wrapped token is a cryptocurrency token pegged to the value of another crypto. It’s called a wrapped token because the original asset is put in a wrapper, a kind of digital vault that allows the wrapped version to be created on another blockchain.
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Tokenized Bitcoin on Ethereum Explained

Tokenized Bitcoin on Ethereum Explained
Tokenized Bitcoin is a way to use bitcoin on other blockchains. But wait, isn’t Bitcoin great already? Indeed it is! It has a solid use case, and it already acts as a kind of public good. At the same time, its purposely limited features leave little room for further innovation.
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How to Use WalletConnect

WalletConnect is a protocol used by many crypto wallets that allows you to easily connect with the many DApps of decentralized finance (DeFi). Simply find the DApp you want to interact with, connect with a QR code or deep link, and you’re good to go. Always remember to disconnect at the end of any session for maximum security
WalletConnect is a protocol used by many crypto wallets that allows you to easily connect with the many DApps of decentralized finance (DeFi). Simply find the DApp you want to interact with, connect with a QR code or deep link, and you’re good to go. Always remember to disconnect at the end of any session for maximum security
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What Is Ethereum? (ETH)

Ethereum is a decentralized computing platform. You can think of it like a laptop or PC, but it doesn't run on a single device. Instead, it simultaneously runs on thousands of machines around the world, meaning that it has no owner.
Ethereum is a decentralized computing platform. You can think of it like a laptop or PC, but it doesn't run on a single device. Instead, it simultaneously runs on thousands of machines around the world, meaning that it has no owner.
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